Members of the Australasian Federation Convention, 1890.

The Australian Crowned Republic Educational Project:

Discover the invaluable truth about Australia's federation and the unique constitutional system that has made it a globally celebrated model of excellence. Be inspired by some of our forefathers' unwavering commitment to preserving, protecting, and defending our heritage, which includes the exceptional Australian constitutional system, the vital role of the Crown, and our resplendent Flag.

As we consider a shift toward a republic, it is important to note that our current system, with the Governor-General serving as the Head of State, already fulfils that role. Any change to our system could result in a period of instability, which is why it is crucial to consider all perspectives and the implications of any modifications.

Please CLICK ON THE IMAGES BELOW to explore Australia's unique governmental system of a crowned republic. You'll gain a better understanding of what sets this system apart from others around the world. The images and videos provided will help you appreciate the system's intricacies and unique features.

"If there were a better system of government in the world today, we would have seen it by now."
Quote from Rick Brown

Crowned Republic: Introduction

Crowned Republic: Introduction The dictionary According to the Macquarie Dictionary, a republic is a state where "the supreme power resides in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them."(For more detail from the dictionaries, go to Definitions.) Usage and political theory Sir Thomas Smith introduced the term "republic" to describe the English system as long ago as the sixteenth century.  He was an English diplomat and one of the most outstanding classical scholars of his time. He studied at Padua and was made Regius Professor of Civil Law and Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University.  He was also a Member of Parliament, an ambassador to France and as a secretary of state, a very close and trusted confidante of  Queen Elizabeth I. His book, "De Republica Anglorum; the Manner of Government or Policie of the Realme of England," was published in 1583. […]

Read More
Our Origins

[The King with His Prime Ministers 1926 (left to right): Walter Stanley Monroe (Newfoundland), Gordon Coates (New Zealand), Stanley Bruce (Australia), J. B. M. Hertzog (Union of South Africa), W.T. Cosgrave (Irish Free State). Seated: Stanley Baldwin (United Kingdom), King George V, William Lyon Mackenzie King (Canada).] The Crown is Australia’s oldest legal and constitutional institution. Introduced with the settlement in 1788, it remains at the centre of our constitutional system. In 1926, as a result of decisions taken at an Imperial Conference of Prime Ministers in London, the single Imperial British Crown began to divide into the Australian, Canadian,  New Zealand, British and other Crowns of other Realms. (Realm comes from an old French word which means a  kingdom.) Each Realm has long been entirely independent. Each one recognizes The Queen or The King as Sovereign or Monarch. Although the Australian states became self-governing colonies in the nineteenth century, […]

Read More
Become a Supporter or Sponsor

Join us in our mission as a valuable supporter or sponsor. We strongly encourage you to be a part of this cause and play a significant role in its success. Crowned Republic was launched as an educational site directed at understanding the Australian Crown as an integral part of our constitutional system. The indissoluble Federal Commonwealth under the Crown was established in 1901 and affirmed by the people in 1999. It is part of a broader educational project to inform Australians about their constitutional system, the role of the Australian Crown in it and the Australian Flag. Donations to support this work are most welcome and may be made on this site. Crowned Republic is an initiative of Australians for Constitutional Monarchy, an audited, not-for-profit profit corporation limited by guarantee formed in 1993 and registered with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, ACN 059 527 776. ACM’s accounts are filed […]

Read More
Newsletter Sign Up

When submitted, the form to the right will generate a FREE subscription to Australian for Constitutional Monarchy's regular news column. As suggested, this service has no fee and can be cancelled without prior notice. We hope you enjoy reading the content and trust that you will find it informative. Join our mailing list to receive periodic updates.

Read More
Power

Probably the best definition of a constitution was given by Lord Bolingbroke (1678-1751), who, in modern language, described it as "that assembly of laws, institutions, and customs, by which the people have agreed to be governed." A constitution, which is not just one document, is about government. It determines the way powers to govern are allocated within a country. On this, there have been two principal schools of thought. As early as the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato, we find the notion that good government is about finding the best people, trusting them and endowing them with full powers. In Plato's Republic, the elite guardians, with superior knowledge and understanding, are trusted to govern. Aristotle, another celebrated Greek philosopher, criticised this. Much of modern history has been about whether governments should be endowed with near-absolute powers or whether effective checks and balances should limit power. England resisted the tendency in continental […]

Read More
The Magic of Monarchy

The Magic of Monarchy Monarchy is a romantic concept. We see this when royalty comes to Australia and the attention this generates. Republicans seem to be affected by royalty too. Professor David Flint, in a light aside to fellow constitutional monarchists, warns them never to stand between visiting royalty, even minor European royalty and republicans, especially Sydney republicans. “Otherwise, you will be at risk of being knocked over in the rush,” he says. During the 1999 referendum, republicans criticised monarchists for not arguing about the virtues of Queen Elizabeth II. But as ACM National Convenor David Flint said,  “Everyone knows we have a marvellous Sovereign. Republicans agree. And The Queen is taking no part in the debate. Her Majesty says this is a matter for us to decide. The qualities of the monarch are not the issue – the referendum is about the Constitution.” “It is gracious of the Republicans […]

Read More
Sovereign

Australia has a superb constitutional system. At the centre of our federal parliamentary democracy, we have an institution above politics which acts as a check and balance on the political branches: the Australian Crown. According to the High Court,  The Queen is the Sovereign, the Governor-General is the constitutional head of the Commonwealth, and the Governors are the constitutional heads of state. The Sovereign ( The Queen or The King) is at the very centre of our constitutional system. In Queen Elizabeth II, we have been blessed with a Sovereign whose performance has been impeccable. Even those who wish to remove the Australian Crown from our constitutional system respect her greatly. So many Republicans say they now have to wait until this reign ends. They did not think this at the referendum in 1999. The role of the Sovereign is not, however, dependent on the qualities of the present incumbent, […]

Read More
The Media

The media play a crucial role in a modern democracy in informing the people.  To do this, they must be accessible.  The media agree that there is an ethical requirement that fact and comment be distinguishable and that the news should be as truthful as possible. As the editor of the Manchester Guardian famously declared in 1921, "Comment is free, but facts are sacred." But while the private media are entitled to editorialise, this is not a luxury which the taxpayer-funded public media, the ABC and SBS, can adequately have. In the 1999 referendum, the media were mainly and strongly in favour of change.  What became clear was that this seriously affected the presentation of the news. As the international authority, and in his earlier career a highly respected editor, Lord  Deedes, wrote in the London Daily Telegraph : "I have rarely attended elections in any country, certainly not a democratic one, […]

Read More
Constitutional Evolution

The beauty of our constitutional system is that it has evolved over the centuries through trial and error. Much was inherited from Britain. From the Magna Carta of 1215 down to the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and through the development of the Westminster system, we have a rich treasure which we have adapted to our own needs and made Australian.   Until the Federation, our constitutional system came wholly from Britain. Although given legal effect by the British and although first proposed by them, the Constitution of our "indissoluble Federal Commonwealth under the Crown" was drafted by Australians in Australia and approved by the people in each of the Australian colonies, or as they consequently became the Australian States. Our Founding Fathers not only borrowed from Britain. They wanted the best. So they also looked to Switzerland for the referendum and the United States for a powerful Senate. Federation established […]

Read More
Referendums and Plebiscites Overview

...republicans believe they would lose another referendum, so they propose a plebiscite or plebiscites... The Australian Founding Fathers were conscious of the risks associated with starting out as a republic. They had observed how Napoleon Bonaparte used constitutional plebiscites to increase his These plebiscites involved only questions without any details, and as a result, Europe suffered a great deal of war as it resisted his attempts to subjugate the continent. TheyNapoleon III continued this practice and used plebiscites to consolidate his power. Therefore, our Founding Fathers rejected the French style of" constitutional plebiscite and instead opted for the Swiss-style referendum, where the issue is on the table before, rather than after the vote. hold on power.  also noted how  a "blank cheque [Read more: WHY OUR FOUNDING FATHERS WOULD NOT HAVE A BAR OF CONSTITUTIONAL PLEBISCITES] [Read more: HOW THE FOUNDING FATHERS INTENDED THE AUSTRALIAN REFERENDUM TO WORK] The Founding […]

Read More
No Constitutional Plebiscites

No Constitutional Plebiscites WHY OUR FOUNDING FATHERS WOULD NOT HAVE A BAR OF CONSTITUTIONAL PLEBISCITES To understand the danger of what is being proposed, let us go back to the work of our Founding Fathers. Our Founders carefully and exhaustively considered the question of how the Constitution should be amended. The Constitution they had drafted was to be a "binding and indissoluble social compact" between the people of the Australian Colonies (now States). The people of each Colony had to be involved at all stages, and finally, the Constitution was the centrepiece of the process initiated by Sir John Quick at Corowa in 1893. Under this, neither the drafting of the Constitution nor its final approval was to be exclusively in the hands of the politicians. This is not to denigrate the role of the politician in the Commonwealth. But the politician's role is to be limited in constitutional matters, […]

Read More
What Founding Fathers Intended

How the founding fathers intended the Australian referendum to work. It is not surprising that the Founding Fathers, democrats to a man, would have found nothing at all attractive in the constitutional plebiscite. Even in a democracy, as France was in 1851 and 1852, a constitutional plebiscite could be so easily misused as it so clearly was. They were determined to prevent change made by stealth, something which is now being proposed in Australia to take up the first decade of the 21st Century. So what did the Founders do? In 1891 the draft Constitution provided that amendments be first proposed by the federal Parliament and then submitted for approval by a majority of elected State Conventions. But at the Corowa Conference, a peoples' conference, it was decided that the process for constitutional approval, and by implication constitutional change, was to lie with the people. It was only when the […]

Read More
Politicians Abuse Plebiscite - Again

POLITICIANS ABUSE THE PLEBISCTE – AGAIN The experience of countries since federation confirms the misuse, and the potential for misuse, of constitutional plebiscites, even to this day. For example, when the Quebec government decided in 1995 that it was time to secede from Canada, they knew they would need the support of the people in what was called a referendum but in reality was a plebiscite. The honest approach -- the approach to ensure an informed vote -- would have been to put all the facts before the Quebecois. In particular, that there was no guarantee that even if Quebec were able to secede, the new state could retain the advantages it had enjoyed as part of Canada. Could Quebec continue to use the Canadian dollar? What would happen to the national debt? Would Quebec continue to be a party to each of Canada's treaties, for example, the free trade […]

Read More
Ours Is Not a "Horse and Buggy Constitution"

Ours Is Not A “Horse And Buggy Constitution” Some will say this is all very well, but the Australian referendum makes it too difficult to change the Constitution. That is not so. As two of our Founders, Sir James Quick and Robert Garran, wrote (The Annotated Constitution of the Australian Commonwealth, 1901, reprinted in 1995, at 988), the safeguard in s.128 is: "... necessary not only for the protection of the federal system but in order to secure maturity of thought in the consideration and settlement of proposals leading to organic changes. These safeguards have been provided, not in order to prevent or indefinitely resist change in any direction, but in order to prevent change being made in haste or by stealth, to encourage public discussion and to delay the change until there is strong evidence that it is desirable, irresistible and inevitable". It is even said that we still […]

Read More
Repeat Referendums in Australia

REPEAT REFERENDA IN AUSTRALIA Having rejected a proposal, the Australian people have, at least until now, also rejected any subsequent similar proposal. In fact, they have been asked to give the following additional powers to Canberra more than once, and they have repeatedly said "No": Monopolies (5 times). Corporations are not already the subject of federal power (5 times). Industrial matters within the State (5 times). Intra-state trade and commerce (3 times). Marketing schemes (twice). Price control (twice). (It could be said that some or most of these would be superfluous today because of the judicial interpretation of the Constitution.) Attempts to impose simultaneous elections of the House and Senate have been rejected on three occasions. (While these proposals might at first glance seem sensible, they would have reduced the Senate's powers and thus the influence of the smaller States.) The people have also twice rejected a proposal to include […]

Read More
Temptation : Change Through The Backdoor

THE TEMPTATION: CHANGE THROUGH THE BACK DOOR This is a plan to circumvent the Constitution by the use of cascading constitutional plebiscites, which are designed to soften the people up before a final referendum. This is a constitutional change by stealth and by fatigue. It irresponsibly invites a vote of no confidence in our Constitution to create a vacuum for at least a decade. This might be the sort of tactic that political parties might adopt over some minor issue. It is not the way to deal with something so fundamentally important as the Constitution. Apart from the sheer irresponsibility of this approach, there is nothing in it for any of the political parties. It is a folly of monumental proportions, beside which the Millennium Dome will appear as a minor glitch. There is nothing in it for the Labor Party -- that was clear from the way in which […]

Read More
Plebiscite Condemned

Australian Republican plebiscites slammed as irresponsible vandalism: Senator Minchin 13 June 2008 Senator Nick Minchin was responsible for implementing the Coalition's promise at the 1996 election to hold a Constitutional Convention to consider the question of a Republic. He regards this as one of the greatest honours bestowed on him by Prime Minister John Howard. The conduct of the Convention is a great tribute to him. It was open, fair and transparent, and allowed participation by the people, political leaders of all parties across the Commonwealth, as well as a selected group of outstanding Australians. The process of selection for this was so fair that the very competent chairmen turned out both to be Republicans, and most of the nominated members were not constitutional monarchists. Compare that with the 2020 Summit. Senator Minchin is one of those honourable people in politics who are not afraid to hold to their principles […]

Read More
Anglosphere

According to Andrew Roberts, the English-speaking countries, the Anglosphere, today account for more than one-third of global GDP, despite their combined population being only 7.5% of the world’s population [i]. These countries share a common origin: their constitutional system, which gradually evolved over centuries. The constitution, which emerged in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, is the basis of later developments in all of the English-speaking countries. It is not that English-speaking people are more intelligent than anyone else. It is that they have long been accustomed to a liberal constitutional system. Such a constitution provides a stable, limited government where people are more free to make their own decisions. It also ensures that there are effective checks and balances against the abuse of power. An electorate used to living under such a constitution becomes more capable of making sophisticated judgements in deciding how to vote. They are, above all, suspicious […]

Read More
The Governors

The  Governor of New South Wales is the oldest office in Australia. The Governor administered the colony under the law and in accordance with detailed instructions from London. As the colonies received self-government mainly in the middle of the nineteenth century, the Governor’s functions receded to those of a local constitutional monarch, with the additional function of representing the Imperial British government. The latter ended in 1926, but at the specific request of Australia, the Statute of Westminster, 1931, did not apply to the states. This meant that in State matters, for example, the appointment of the Governor, the Sovereign would act on the formal advice of the British ministers, who almost always acted according to the wishes of the State government. The only recorded case of disagreement between a Premier and the British ministers was the refusal to renew the appointment of Sir Colin Hannah as Governor of Queensland. […]

Read More
A Mate for Head of State

The Republicans' major campaign in 2006 was "A Mate for Head of State." Since the referendum, one of the preoccupations of the republican movement has been to ensure media attention so that a mainly disinterested public would be reminded of an issue they are not at all interested in. This has not been difficult, given that the mainstream media is one of the two strongholds of republicanism.  (The other is among the politicians.) These republican stunts are usually mounted around Australia Day or the Queen’s birthday and are too often monumentally foolish. One of their silliest was the demand that The Queen give back Tom Robert’s wonderful painting of the State Opening of the first Federal Parliament in 1901 by our future King. That painting hangs on permanent loan in the Parliament in Canberra. It is hardly the personal property of The Queen! But even one state premier joined in […]

Read More
The 2001 Corowa Conference

Richard Elgin McGarvie, AC, QC (21 May 1926 – 24 May 2003) was a judge in the Supreme Court of Victoria from 1976 to 1992 and the 24th Governor of Victoria from 1992 to 1997. Author of the McGarvie Model, McGarvie was an appointed delegate to Constitutional Convention on the Australian Republic in February 1998 and initiated the 2001 Corowa conference to find common ground among republicans after the referendum defeat in 1999. He took the unusual position of making contributions to republicanism without directly supporting the broader republican movement. He promoted his own model and, at the 1998 convention, argued the provision for two-thirds parliamentary dismissal of a president was unworkable. The Republic: Report from Corowa Professor David Flint, AM ...The invitation... The 2001 Corowa People's Conference was conceived and developed by the Hon. Richard McGarvie, who insists he is neither a constitutional monarchist nor a republican, to approve […]

Read More
Before Federation

With the Settlement of Eastern Australia in 1788, the British brought four of the six pillars of the modern Australian nation. These were the Rule of Law, the English language,  the Crown and our Judeo-Christian values. In a surprisingly brief period of time, the colonies were moving gradually towards self-government. The celebrated scientist, Charles Darwin, observed in 1836: “When I arrived in Sydney, I felt proud to be an Englishman. We have achieved more in decades here than what those who colonised South America have achieved in as many centuries.” Legislation to introduce self-government and Parliamentary Democracy in New South Wales and Victoria was approved by the British government before the Eureka Stockade, which is often misrepresented as the source of Australian democracy. The legislation was passed in 1855 and gradually extended to the other colonies. Parliamentary democracy is, in fact, the fifth pillar of our nation. No other colonial […]

Read More
Australia: A Crowned Republic

From the definition of the word “republic,” it can be seen that without some qualification, the word is so imprecise that it is almost meaningless. Opinion polls asking peoples' opinions on whether Australia should become  “ a republic” are of little use.  Australia was created as an indissoluble Federal Commonwealth under the Crown - a crowned republic.  The question should define precisely which sort of republic is being proposed. On this site, we distinguish between the two primary forms of republics. One group is “crowned republics” (constitutional monarchies).  At the centre of these is an institution above politics, the Crown. The other category consists of  “politicians’ republics”.  In these, there is no similar institution which provides leadership beyond politics. In such a politicians' republic, the head of state ( and any state governor) is an elected politician or one appointed by and controlled by the politicians. These categories are not exhaustive. […]

Read More
Australian Legislature

Australian Legislature What is the legislature in Australia? The term 'legislature' is the proper name given to the houses – or 'chambers' – of parliament within any of the governments in Australia. The legislature at both federal and state/territory levels of government is made up of people elected by citizens. A legislature is an assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. They are often contrasted with the executive and judicial powers of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are usually known as primary legislation. First, the Australian Crown is part, and an inherent part, of each of the parliaments. Each one is The King, Queen or sovereign in Parliament. This is so even where the enacting formula has been twisted to remove any reference to  The King, Queen or sovereign. (This is yet another example of creeping republicanism where the politicians […]

Read More
Australian Executive

Australian Executive Unlike the Parliament, of which the Crown is a constituent part, the Crown is the executive. The cabinet is an informal political body having no formal constitutional status. In the 1999 referendum, this was presented by the republican movement as some sort of constitutional flaw or oversight. It is nothing of the sort. That the cabinet, consisting only of the leaders of the majority, has no executive power is a protection and not a disadvantage. In the Westminster system, as the founders intended it to apply in Australia, its recommendations are subject to an independent audit.  The republican critique that this is not mentioned in the federal Constitution  demonstrates a refusal or inability to accept that the constitution has a broader meaning, that is as that “assembly of laws, institutions and customs… according to which the community has agreed to be governed.” While the Crown will normally act […]

Read More
Fount of Justice

Fount of Justice The Crown And Law “In the earliest times, the Sovereign was a key figure in the enforcement of law and the establishment of legal systems in different areas of the UK. As such, the Sovereign became known as the 'Fount of Justice'. While no longer administering justice in a practical way, the Sovereign today still retains an important symbolic role as the figure in whose name justice is carried out and law and order is maintained. Although civil and criminal proceedings cannot be taken against the Sovereign as a person under UK law, The Queen is careful to ensure that all her activities in her personal capacity are carried out in strict accordance with the law (https://www.royal.uk/ )”. No less an authority than Blackstone, probably revered more in the United States than in the United Kingdom or Australia, explains that “justice is not derived from the king, […]

Read More
Fount of Honour

Fount Of Honour The Sovereign is ‘the fountain of all honour and dignity’ and enjoys the sole right of conferring all titles of honour, dignity and precedence. Formerly most honours were awarded on the advice of the prime minister and the premiers. The Order of Australia was instituted not by statute but by  Letters Patent under the royal prerogative and has since replaced most imperial honours except those in the personal gift of the Sovereign. From this concept comes the ceremonial role of the Crown, which is an important part of the life of the community. This extends to the recognition of achievement, service and of, bravery and the lending of the dignity of the Crown to important events in the life of the nation and its many communities. The important feature is that this comes from the institution which is above politics and that the involvement of the Crown […]

Read More
Employer of The Public Service

The Crown is the employer of the public or civil service, and not the ruling political party. The loyalty of the public servant must therefore be to the non political Crown and not to the politicians. This enforces the obligation of the public servant to act within and according to law, and to provide advice not influenced by and indifferent to political considerations. The emergence of a non-partisan public or civil service coincided with the withdrawal of the Crown from political activity and the emergence of the constitutional monarchy as we know it. In advice which was equally applicable to Australia, Walter Bagehot argued that in 1867, to assure popular rule, there were only two constitutional models available to Canada: the British or the American constitutional model. Not only did he think a non- partisan public service did not prevail in the US, he believed it was impossible. The contrast between the […]

Read More
Commander-in-Chief

Commander-in-Chief Under the Federal Constitution, defence is effectively a Federal power. The command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the governor-general “as the Queen’s representative”. Were this to be drafted today, the section might have provided that the command in chief is vested in the governor-general “as the representative of the Australian Crown.” But this would not change the meaning. It would, however, stress that the representation is that of the Sovereign’s political body, the Crown, as well as that of the Sovereign’s natural body. That the loyalty of the armed forces is to their personal Sovereign is a benefit and maintains their purity from any party political taint. The strength in separating the command in chief from both the operational command and questions of ministerial responsibility is threefold. First, the governor-general must be assured that he has the power to act […]

Read More
Constitutional Guardian

Constitutional Guardian According to Sir Zelman Cowen, (AK, GCMG, GCVO, KStJ, QC (7 October 1919 – 8 December 2011) was an Australian legal scholar and university administrator who served as the 19th Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1977 to 1982), Said: the reserve powers of the Crown include the power to dismiss a ministry, to grant or refuse a dissolution, and to designate a prime minister.    Few legal observers would deny the existence of the reserve powers, although in controversial cases, there is a debate on the manner and time of their use.   In Australia, these powers are exercisable at the federal level by the governor-general. They are not reviewable by the courts, not being justiciable, nor is it for The Queen to review their exercise. It is, therefore, inappropriate for a viceroy to discuss their exercise in advance with the Sovereign. In addition, it is relevant at this […]

Read More
Federal Lynchpin

Federal Lynchpin As the dominions rose to equality with the United Kingdom and moved from self-government to independence, the impact on the Crown was fundamental and probably not fully appreciated. The Imperial Crown, once indivisible throughout the old Empire, devolved into separate Crowns for each of the Dominions, which became, in modern parlance, the Realms. It is unlikely that any other constitutional system would allow such an evolutionary development. As Professor David E Smith concludes, republics are created; monarchies, particularly the British ones, emerge and evolve through the sharing of power. The move to independence was achieved more under the Crown than by imperial legislation. Under the Constitution Act 1900 (Imp.), the colonies became the states of the new Commonwealth operating under their pre-existing constitutions.   Unlike Canada, the governors of the Australian states are not appointed by the governor-general acting on the advice of the federal government. This is a […]

Read More
Personal Union

The Australian Crown is separate and independent from the Crowns of the other (15) fifteen Commonwealth Realms. The relationship is a personal union, well known in international law, and in the history of the British Empire. From the reign of George I to George IV, a personal union existed between the Crowns of Great Britain and Hanover. Today, the personal union in our Crowns is one aspect of our very close relations with countries such as the UK, New Zealand, Canada, and Papua New Guinea. In the eighties and nineties, it was fashionable to downplay the links with the UK, a former prime minister even gratuitously insulted her in the federal parliament. As one of the world’s leading economies, one of the most powerful military powers, as a permanent member of the Security Council, as a major European Union power, and also being favorably disposed to Australia, it was difficult to understand this […]

Read More
Head of the Commonwealth of Nations

Head of the Commonwealth of Nations The King or Queen, our sovereign, is the Head of the Commonwealth of Nations.  No one has put her contribution to this role more clearly than the thirteen-year-old Australian youth ambassador, Harry White, at the 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games opening. He said: “Your Majesty, during the past 54 years of your reign, you have been the glue that has held us all together in the great Commonwealth of Nations in good times and bad times. The love and great affection that we all hold for you is spread across one-third of the world's population in our Commonwealth.” The Commonwealth is one international organisation which maintains minimum standards for continuing membership. While Zimbabwe remains suspended from the Commonwealth (it claims to have withdrawn), a glance at the membership and chairmanship of the defunct UN Human Rights Commission will indicate that different standards apply there. The […]

Read More
The Golden Thread

The Golden Thread The Australian Constitution is sometimes criticised by those wanting to change it because it does not, for example, refer to the Cabinet or the Prime Minister. However, the Constitution was not intended to be a complete text on the constitutional system. It was a document federating the six self-governing countries into a nation, setting up new Federal institutions and granting them certain limited powers. The Founding Fathers, led by the Queenslander who was to become the  first Australian Chief Justice, Sir Samuel Griffith  ( shown above in the illustration from The Samuel Griffith Society site, the only Australian site dedicated to the study and advancement of federalism) would have seen the constitution as Bolingbroke did, as  that "assembly of laws, customs and institutions...according to which the community has agreed to be governed.” The Founding Fathers assumed that the absolute rights Australians had brought with them from Britain would […]

Read More
The Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution: Three Centuries of Freedom The Glorious Revolution is as relevant today in Australia and the wider world as it was in England in 1688. It is arguably the most significant single advance in the provision of good government that the world has ever seen. This has been overshadowed by concentrating on its quite peripheral impact on the divisions among Christians. But the Calvinist Prince of Orange who became William III was driven by his fear of absolutist French hegemony over Europe, not by worries about Catholicism, whose leader, the Pope, was his temporal ally. The point is that the freedoms ensured and the benefits gained from the Glorious Revolution far exceed anything gained from any other single event , including the mistakenly more celebrated French Revolution. The Reign of Terror in the French Revolution was bad enough, but the loss of life from the resulting years of […]

Read More
The Australia 2020 Summit

The Australia 2020 Summit. The 2020 Summit was called by the Prime Minister of Australia, the Hon. Kevin Rudd, as an ideas summit of the “best and brightest”. It was held on 19 and 20 April 2008 at Parliament House in Canberra. The Prime Minister described the Summit as” an exciting initiative aimed at harnessing the best ideas for building a modern Australia ready for the challenges of the 21st century. “ The media treated the Summit’s endorsement of a vague, undefined republic as its most important and central recommendation. This emerged with minimal discussion and no details from the Summit’s governance panel by a vote of 98:1 with one abstention. It is hard to take the Summit seriously. Indeed, one leading Republican academic, Professor Robert Manne, described the governance session as resembling a Mad Hatter’s Party.  Another respected constitutional authority, Dr Anne Twomey, criticised the resort to chat show […]

Read More
About Us

This site was established as part of the Crowned Republic Education Project to provide a better understanding of our heritage: our Australian constitutional system, the role of the Australian Crown in it and our Flag. The Patron of the Crowned Republic Education Project is the noted broadcaster Alan Jones AO. Crowned Republic was designed by Jai Martinkovits and Kerem Besikcioglu‎ of J.K Managed Solutions. Emeritus Professor David Flint AM, Jai Martinkovits and Ed Copeman constituted the editing team. They are supported by Philip Gibson as a fundraiser, Thomas Flynn as administrator and Peter Cavanagh as financial adviser. Podcasts from The Republic Unplugged have been generously made available by Nick Hobson, DFC AFC. 2023 This site was updated by Clayton Metcalfe of the Australian FREEDOM Network in conjunction with HarpBBT. All material is authorised by Professor Flint and Thomas Flynn, 6th Floor, 104 Bathurst Street Sydney 2000, All inquiries to: _______________

Read More
The Senate Inquiry 2003-4

The Senate Inquiry  2003-4 On 26 June 2003, less than four years after a resounding rejection in 1999,  the Senate referred an Inquiry into the Australian Republic to the Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee. The Terms of Reference were not whether a politician's republic was desirable. ____________________ Terms of Reference (a) the most appropriate process for moving towards the establishment of an Australian republic with an Australian Head of State; and (b) alternative models for an Australian republic, with specific reference to: (i) the functions and powers of the Head of State (ii) the method of selection and removal of the Head of State, and (iii) the relationship of the Head of State with the executive, the parliament and the judiciary. The committee is also required to facilitate wide community participation in this inquiry by conducting public hearings throughout Australia, including in rural and regional areas. ____________________ Remarkably, the inquiry […]

Read More
From Federation

From Federation The Federation of Australia was a Unique Achievement: Although the British had first proposed it decades before, it was actually drafted in Australia by Australians and approved by the Australian people in each of the colonies states. The British allowed Australians to change their Constitution without reference to London. The Governor-General was Granted by a constitutional provision the direct exercise of the executive power of the Commonwealth. It was Peaceful. Federation was thus the sixth pillar of the nation. Australia has been able to enjoy a peaceful, limited government, both in times of peace and war, as well as during times of prosperity and depression, thanks to the Federal Constitution. This document has allowed the nation to transition from being a self-governing Dominion within the British Empire to achieving full independence as a Realm within the Commonwealth. The Federation was established on the principle of the new entity being […]

Read More
Australian Crown

The Australian Crown is not only what The King or Queen wears when he or she is crowned. It also refers to our oldest legal and constitutional institution. It is central to our constitutional system. Today it remains an important check and balance against the abuse of power by those elected to represent the people and form the Federal and State governments. With the High Court, it is the only institution which straddles the State and Federal divide. When our Founding Fathers established our Federation, there was no serious proposal that the new nation should be anything but a crowned republic. The essence of the new nation was that it would be an indissoluble Federal Commonwealth under the Crown. Our Founding Fathers proposed that and were approved by the people of the six colonies, now the states. This was affirmed by the people in all six States and by 72% of […]

Read More
Debating Notes Page 1

THE BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE So Australians set up a balance of power. The Governor-General (and only the Governor-General, not the Queen) can sack the Prime Minister if he or she acts unconstitutionally. On the other hand, the Prime Minister can advise the Queen to sack the Governor-General if he or she misbehaves. The former situation happened in 1975, while the latter situation has not yet arisen. The Governor-General is sworn to uphold the Constitution and acts in one sense as an impartial 'umpire' in the case of an irreconcilable dispute between the House of Representatives and the Senate, elected as they are on different electoral bases but with equal powers (except over money bills). A republic will seriously impair the present system of checks and balances if that referee becomes a party political politician either before, at the time of, or after the election. Some other machinery must be […]

Read More
Early Republican Movements

The Crown has been an established component of the Australian constitutional system since the country's inception. Despite facing challenges such as the Second World War, it has endured and continues to serve as a crucial mechanism for checks and balances. The current campaign by the Republican party marks the fourth major effort to eliminate the Crown's role, but its integral place in our language and culture cannot be denied. The first significant Republican movement was in the nineteenth century. Its aim was to establish a white racist republic free of the immigration policy of the British Empire. This faded away with the movement to the Federation, with the Commonwealth of Australia endowed with an express power to establish a national immigration policy. The second and longest campaign was to create a communist state similar to the East European Peoples’ Republics established after the Second World War.   Its proponents never made […]

Read More
Parliamentary Democracy

[Lieutenant-Colonel George Johnston (19 March 1764 – 5 January 1823) was a British military officer who served as Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales, Australia, after leading the rebellion later known as the Rum Rebellion.] Parliamentary Democracy The French, the Spanish, and the Portuguese did not transmit the parliamentary concept to their colonies, as the British did to their American colonies long before independence and as they did to Australia. Why? Because they could not. The other European powers, with the possible exception of the Dutch, did not have this concept at home. And the Dutch showed no interest in granting self-government to their colonies. So parliament, self-government and the Westminster system, the fifth pillar of our nation, came very early to Australia within our one generation of the founding of the penal colony. And Australians quickly adapted to these institutions, making them even more democratic and, thus, more Australian. AUTONOMOUS […]

Read More
New Republican Movements

New Republican Movements In the 1960s, a group of intellectuals in Australia held the belief that the Australian Crown's problem stemmed from the obligation felt by their social class to display deference towards Britain. However, this matter went unnoticed by the British. It is crucial to acknowledge that our constitutional system is entirely distinct from the personal psychological issues of a small number of Australian intellectuals. The rise of Republicanism was not primarily motivated by a sense of inadequacy towards Britain but rather stemmed from a cutthroat political battle that took place in 1975. Two politicians engaged in this struggle, both of whom were unwilling to compromise and make concessions. This intense power struggle ultimately gave rise to the prominence of Republicanism. The Leader of the Opposition, Malcolm Fraser, was impatient for government and not willing to wait the normal 18 or so months for an election to be held. […]

Read More
Republicanism Since The Referendum

Republicanism Since The Referendum The Republican movement said that whatever the result in 1999, it would close down. However, it has mounted the present and fourth major campaign for an Australian republic. The movement's theme today could well be "We demand a republic...but we haven't the foggiest idea what sort of republic we want..." Within the current Republican movement, there are really two movements. One favours a republic in which the federal politicians choose the president. How the governors are to be chosen will be either left to the federal politicians or the state politicians. The other movement wants to have regular elections to elect the president, vice presidents, governors, lieutenant governors and administrators. The significant differences now from the earlier movement, which led to the "Yes" case in 1999, are first, the movement is unwilling or unable to specify the model or any details of the change it wants. […]

Read More
The Evolving Constitution

The Evolving Constitution There are two distinct approaches to constitutional reform, observes Professor Kenneth Minogue of the London School of Economics. One is evolutionary and minimalist. The other is theoretical, abstract, and often revolutionary. The first recognises that when an evident evil arises in government, it needs to be corrected with as little disturbance as possible. This is the traditional Australian approach, as demonstrated not only in the way we have made our constitutions but also in the way we change them. It could be summed up by the maxim, Si fractures non sit noli id refinery, which could be translated as, "If it ain't broke, don't fix it." This is not a desire to cling to the past but to preserve a system that has exhibited enough inner dynamism to survive the twentieth century. Minogue says that it is precisely the capacity of constitutional monarchy not just to change […]

Read More
Australian Settlement

[Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney PC (24 February 1733 – 30 June 1800) was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1754 to 1783 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Sydney. He held several important Cabinet posts in the second half of the 18th century. The cities of Sydney in Nova Scotia, Canada, and Sydney in New South Wales, Australia, were named in his honour in 1785 and 1788, respectively.] Australian Settlement When the British came to Australia, they did not find a country in which there was anything recognisable as a government. They had in other parts of the non-European world, but not in Australia. To say that is to denigrate neither the Aboriginal history of this continent nor the Aboriginal people. But modern Australia began with the settlement, which had both harsh and good consequences for the indigenous people. Some form […]

Read More
Crowned Republics Compared

Crowned Republics Compared. Of the seven oldest continuing democracies, five are crowned republics (otherwise known as constitutional monarchies), in contrast to politicians’ republics. (In a politicians’ republic, either the politicians choose or play a significant role in choosing the president, or the president is an elected politician.) Four of those five crowned republics have Queen Elizabeth II as their Sovereign: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom; Sweden is the fifth. These five have proved more stable than the two political republics, Switzerland and the USA, which both experienced civil wars in the nineteenth century. The countries that fought the Axis in the Second World War - from the beginning to the end - were all crowned republics. And they all shared the same Sovereign, The King–Emperor George V, the father of Queen Elizabeth II. Crowned republics do not suffer from the rigidity of the American model, which becomes […]

Read More
The Australian Flag

The Australian Flag If a republic is about symbols, what of our chief national symbol, the Australian National Flag? The origins of Australia's National Flag go back to just before the Federation in 1900 when the Melbourne newspaper, the Evening Herald and then the Review of Reviews for Australasia sponsored national flag competitions. On 29 April 1901, the new commonwealth government announced its competition for the design of a national flag. It then was agreed to combine the Review of Reviews competition with the commonwealth government's, with a total prize of two hundred pounds, a substantial sum in those days. Designs submitted to the Herald's competition were also considered. The judges were to have been the six premiers, but they were replaced by seven men with appropriate qualifications. By the closing date, 32,823 entries had been received. The prize was divided between five contestants who submitted similar designs. Two were […]

Read More
Judeo Christian Values

Judeo Christian Values Judeo Christian principles The concept of a Judeo-Christian tradition flows from the Christian theology of supersession, whereby the Christian covenant (or Testament) with God supersedes the Jewish one. Christianity, according to this belief, reforms and replaces Judaism. Our Judeo Christian values came with the settlement of Australia. They permeate our law, our language, our institutions and our Federation. (To say this is not to argue against the notion that Australia should not only tolerate but welcome migrants of other religions or of no religion— it is merely to state irrefutable facts.) The Success Story of the Twentieth Century: The Australian Federation The core of our Judaeo-Christian culture is the Holy Bible. It sets the context of, and it permeates and enriches, all the other pillars of our society. The common law is based on Christian ethics. The canon of our language is found in the Bible and […]

Read More
The United States

The United States It is curious that the Australian Republican movement does not consider the United States constitutional system as a possible model for Australia. At the time our Founding Fathers were moving towards the federation of our nation, the American constitutional system had some attractions, particularly in the upper house of Congress, the Senate. There was, however, no interest in becoming a republic. The Westminster system, increasingly Australianised, was working too well.  Could we now go the way of the United States? There are significant differences between us, as there are between Canada and the USA. The crown founded Australia. Development was led by the crown. The USA was founded not so much by the crown but by dissident groups of people wishing to escape the religious rigours of the established church. They settled and developed their territories with a minimum role for government. Nevertheless, the American colonies still […]

Read More
Rule of Law

New South Wales was never envisaged to be, and never was, as Robert Hughes (The Fatal Shore, 1986) claims, a dictatorship or a gulag. It was to be a colony, admittedly a penal colony, but one nonetheless subject to the law. This meant that from the very beginning, we were subject not to the rule of men but to the rule of law. Now by the rule of men, we mean a system of governance in which the government enjoys near absolute discretion in governing, as in the Soviet Union or Nazi Germany. From 1788, no Australian governor or government has ever enjoyed anything even close to such powers. What, then, is the rule of law? Sir Guy Green (Governors, Democracy and the Rule of Law - Robert Menzies Oration, 1999), former Chief Justice and then Governor of Tasmania, concludes that it has two core elements. First, everyone, particularly the […]

Read More
English Language

English Language The English language is the second pillar of the Australian nation. English is the third most widely spoken language in the world. It's also the predominant language in many developed countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and New Zealand. English belongs to the West Germanic language family within the Indo-European language group, with its earliest forms spoken by the people of early medieval England. Since the first settlers arrived in Australia in 1788, English has been essential to the country's heritage. It served not only as a means of communication but also as a medium for some of the world's most significant literary works, including the Book of Common Prayer, the Authorised or King James Version of the Bible, and the works of Shakespeare. Today, English is the official language of Australia, and the country has an open attitude towards other languages. This […]

Read More
France

France At the time of our movement to Federation, our Founding Fathers did not look to the French constitution for processes and institutions worthy of adoption. Nor has the present Australian Republican movement. In fact, the French know more about constitutional models than most countries. France has experienced an absolute than a constitutional monarchy, five republics, a restored monarchy, then a "bourgeois monarchy", two empires, various revolutionary regimes (Legislative Assembly, Convention, Directorate, Consulate) as well as the Vichy dictatorship. Incidentally, all of this occurred in France at the time that Australia evolved from a penal colony to autonomy, to federation and to independence. We should never forget that we are more experienced in democratic government than any of the principal mainland European powers, indeed any major world power except the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada. The First French Republic ended in the Reign of Terror and then Bonaparte's […]

Read More
Argentina

Argentina Republicans raised the constitutional status of Argentina. Richard Woolcott said that an Argentinian had told him it would be impossible to conceive of the King of Spain also being King of Argentina. Australia and Argentina Our Federation was born on the first day of the new century, 1 January 1901. A comparison with another similar country demonstrates the extraordinary success of the Australian Federation. In 1901, Australia had one of the highest incomes per head in the world, an honour it shared with another former settled colony, Argentina. We had much in common. Both were countries of European set¬tlement, both supplanting an indigenous population, although Argentina was treated much more harshly. Both attracted large-scale immigration, and both imported much of their essentially Judaeo-Christian culture and their European language. Both were developed with substantial British investment, and both were rivals for shares in the lucrative British meat market. But our […]

Read More
Republic Advisory Committee 1993

Republic Advisory Committee RAC 1993 In 1993 Prime Minister Paul Keating established a Republic Advisory Committee (RAC) to advise him on the various options for minimal change necessary to bring about a republican government in Australia. The RAC's terms of reference stipulated that it should not address any broader issues regarding other areas of constitutional reform or the normative question of whether Australia ought to become a republic. It should also not make any final recommendations but rather address the advantages and disadvantages of the possible approaches to a specified list of matters. (RAC, Vol. 1, p iv) So the Republic Advisory Committee was not intended to debate the advantages or disadvantages of a republic over the existing system. Its formation reflected Keating's adversarial style. He once argued that the first question about a republic was: "Do you support an Australian republic?" Only if you supported such an entity were […]

Read More
First Referendum Model

After Prime Minister Keating’s response to the report of the  Republican Advisory Committee, a model for the Australian Republic emerged, the first Keating -Turnbull republic. APPOINTING THE PRESIDENT The first Keating–Turnbull model has met with both practical and ideological criticism. Despite strong electoral support for popular elections, the Keating government advocated parliamentary appointment and dismissal. Clerk of the Senate Harry Evans has argued against this method of appointment on principle: Most people, not intellectuals, are able to detect the massive contradiction at the heart of the elite orthodoxy: the monarchy must go partly because it is undemocratic, but the people must not be allowed to choose the replacement because they would stupidly make the wrong choice. (News Weekly, 29 July 1997) Bill Hayden, a former governor-general, warns of the practical effect of election by the special parliamentary majority: Those who believe a president elected by both Houses of Parliament would […]

Read More
Australian Constitutional Convention of 1998

Australian Constitutional Convention of 1998. In early 1998, the Old Parliament House in Canberra, Australia, became the centre of a significant event known as the Constitutional Convention. The purpose of this event was to address a critical matter that would impact Australia's future, namely whether the country should become a republic or maintain its current system. Esteemed personalities from various backgrounds gathered to engage in constructive and thought-provoking discourse. However, as the summer of 1998 approached, Robert Manne, an Associate Professor in Politics at Monash University and a regular columnist, expressed surprise in the Sydney Morning Herald (1 February 1999) about what he described as "infighting" within Australia's Republican Movement (ARM). Even if the Republican camp were united, he noted, persuading a majority of Australians and a majority of states during the upcoming referendum would have been immensely challenging. However, with an "internally divided, self-lacerating Republican Movement," these challenges would […]

Read More
The Second Referendum Model

The Second Referendum Model We come now to the so-called "bipartisan model" for a republic that emerged from the Constitutional Convention. It is essentially owned by the Australian Republic Movement (ARM), which had for years espoused the first version of the Keating—Turnbull republic. That is why it is best described as the second version of the Keating—Turnbull republic. The fundamental question for Australians in the coming ref¬erendum is whether this model is better than, or at least as good as, the present constitution. The Australian Republic Movement (ARM) argues that it is as good and that the change is only symbolic. But if the Australian Republic Movement (ARM) is questioned about the details of their model, the response usually is that opponents are engaged in the "mother of all scare campaigns". This will be a term used over and over during the campaign. It is clear the last thing the […]

Read More
Definitions

Definitions Three words are central to the current debate about whether Australia should move from its crowned republic. Those words are “constitution”,  “republic”,  "commonwealth ", and “head of state.” Constitution: This term may be used to refer to the basic law of the Commonwealth of Australia, as set out in the Constitution Act 1900. It can equally be used to refer to the constitution of a state. In a wider sense, the term can refer to the whole constitutional system, including various important statutes that came with the 1788 settlement and the conventions or customs that have evolved over the years. During the course of the 1999 referendum debate, the Constitution was sometimes criticised by those advancing the Yes case because it did not, for example, refer to the cabinet or the prime minister. Earlier, an unsuccessful attempt had been made to write down or codify the Reserve Powers vested […]

Read More
The 1999 Referendum

The 1999 Referendum. The republican model, the Keating Turnbull republic, was then referred to the people. This emerged in the last days of the Constitutional Convention. This was the Second Keating-Turnbull Republic, one which was highly authoritarian and anti-federal and which was suddenly pulled out of the hat. After telling us in 1993 that there was an almost universal view that the President was not to hold office at the whim of the Prime Minister, the ARM (Australian Republican Movement)  now proposed the first republic in recorded history where it would be easier for the Prime Minister to dismiss the President than his cook! Not developed from the point of constitutional principle, this model was formulated only to procure the maximum votes from the politician delegates so as to obtain a majority vote at the Convention. And it failed even in that. But as the constitutional model was chosen and […]

Read More
First Four Pillars

First Four Pillars Australia, also known as the Commonwealth of Australia, has a rich history that dates back to the settlement established in 1788. The British brought with them four fundamental elements that form four of the six pillars of our nation, the foundation of our nation. These elements have been adapted to Australian culture and are now integral to our identity. Our national language, English, the rule of law, our Judeo-Christian values, and the Crown, our oldest institution, offer guidance beyond politics. They have helped shape our nation into the prosperous and diverse country it is today.

Read More
The Crown

The Crown was our first institution, and it is our oldest. As with common law and the language, so with the Crown: it was to be adapted and made Australian, a point specifically recognised by our High Court in 1999 when it ruled, unanimously, that our Crown is in fact a separate, Australian institution. The sovereign is the same person who is the Sovereign of Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and her other realms, but each crown is separate. In the British Empire in its heyday, there was but one Crown. Labour Leader and High Court Judge Dr Herbert Vere Evatt 1936 (The King and His Dominion Governors, reprinted in Evatt and Forsey on The Reserve Powers, Legal Books, Sydney 1990) concluded that the imperial crown was one and indivisible. But this has changed with the independence of the former dominions, now the realms. The Australian Crown is the […]

Read More
New States

New States The Australian Constitution has always envisaged the admission or establishment of new states. The fact is that no new states have ever been admitted or established. The use of the word admitted probably refers to the possible admission of other British colonies. There seems to be no reason why other territories which were never British colonies could not become Australian states[I]. [The Haka could be Australian...if New Zealand were one or two Australian States] From time to time, there have been proposals to create new states, most notably in New South Wales and Queensland. In New South Wales, there have been proposals to establish new states in the north, “New England”, the south, “Illawarra”, and in the Riverina.  There has also been a proposal to establish a new state in the North of Queensland, “Capricornia”. There have been proposals to establish the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern […]

Read More
Centralism

[Charles Nuttall: The opening of the first Federal Parliament, 9 May 1901, Museum Victoria Collection] Centralism Federation, although first proposed by the British, was our own decision. This was to establish “an indissoluble Federal Commonwealth under the Crown ... and under the Constitution". The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act provided that the six self-governing Australian colonies would be “Original States” in the new Commonwealth of Australia. The law-making power of the new Commonwealth was to be vested in a Federal Parliament, which was to have only those powers clearly set out in the Constitution. Some powers would be exclusive to the Commonwealth, such as making laws for Commonwealth Territories, raising military forces to defend the Commonwealth or minting coins. Other powers would be shared with the states (the “concurrent powers”), for example, banking, insurance, corporations, marriage and divorce. But for each of these, the Commonwealth law would prevail if there […]

Read More
Governor General of Australia

Governor General of Australia Since 1 July 2019, the governor-general has been General David Hurley. From the Federation in 1901 until 1965, 11 out of the 15 governors-general were British aristocrats; they included six barons, two viscounts, two earls, and one royal duke. The Role of the Governor-General has been described in detail on the Governor-General’s website. A copy of the website content as of 19th February 2009 can be found here. The relationship between the office and that of the Sovereign has evolved as the Crown itself has been Australianised and separated from the imperial British Crown, so much so that some people ask why we cannot just keep the viceroys, the Governor-General and the State Governors and dispense with our Sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II her heirs and successors. We propose dealing with these three issues separately on this page see blow. The Evolution of Roles Australianising the Crown […]

Read More
Governor-General's Website

***  This extract was taken from http://www.gg.gov.au on the 19/02/2009  *** Governor-General's Role The Governor-General is appointed by The Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister (see the Commission of 21 August 2008). After receiving the commission, the Governor-General takes an Oath of Allegiance and an Oath of Office to The Queen and issues a Proclamation assuming office. The Governor-General’s appointment is at The Queen’s pleasure, that is, without a term being specified. In practice, however, there is an expectation that appointments will be for around five years, subject on occasion, to some extension. The Governor-General’s salary is set by an Act of Parliament at the beginning of each term of office, and cannot be changed during the appointment. (See Constitution, s 3 and the Governor-General Act 1974). The Governor-General’s powers and role derive from the Constitution. Letters Patent from The Queen, dated 21 August 2008, also set out […]

Read More
Queen Elizabeth II Accession

Queen Elizabeth II Accession Accession describes the event of a new Sovereign taking the throne upon the death of the previous King or Queen. A new Sovereign succeeds to the throne as soon as his or her predecessor dies and is proclaimed as soon as possible at an Accession Council in St James's Palace. From 1952 until 2022, Accession Day took place on 6 February, during the reign of Elizabeth II. The present monarch, Charles III's, accession day is 8 September. Accession Day is observed in the United Kingdom by flying specific flags and various official functions. On 6th February 1952, H.R.H. The Princess Elizabeth succeeded her father, King George VI and took the name Elizabeth II. When she was born on 21st April 1926, there was little to indicate that this would be her destiny. Her father, H.R.H Prince Albert, Duke of York, was born on 14th December 1895 […]

Read More
Speakers Bureau Network

Speakers Bureau Network The Australian Crowned Republic Network has a team of speakers available for school functions, conventions and other occasions. Please email [email protected] and indicate the occasion, the date and place, A short description of the subject envisaged and the time allowed, and contact details, including phone numbers. While we cannot guarantee a speaker will always be available, we will use our best endeavours to ensure a speaker is available.

Read More
More Debating Notes Page 2

[This was originally published in 1997 as THE ACM HANDBOOK, Key Facts and Opinions for the Republic Debate in Australia. Some minor editorial changes have been made. The Handbook  opened with the following preface and acknowledgements: Our Charter is to defend the Australian system of government and the Australian Constitution. This handbook has been produced from materials forwarded to our ACM office by generous supporters, from our own comprehensive library which includes media monitoring since 1992, and from our field and media appearances when debating republicans and their arguments. The tireless efforts of our leader since its formation, Mr Lloyd Waddy, QC, are continually reflected in the philosophy and arguments presented in this handbook. We give our special thanks to Barbara and Lindsay Thomson, Gold Coast 'No Republic' branch, for their invaluable contributions and research. In particular, we thank our ACM supporters who have stood up for our cause through […]

Read More
Voice of The National Flag
Read More
The Neville Bonner Memorial Prize

The Neville Bonner Memorial Prize is an Australian speaking competition for students in years 9 and 10 from both private and public schools. The competition aims to encourage these students to take an interest in civics, particularly our system of government and constitutional arrangements. In 2009, the Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (ACM) held its inaugural competition. Some of Sydney's leading schools received it well and are now integral to an incorporated civics educational programme, which has since expanded rapidly. In 2010, The Crowned Republic saw competitions in Sydney and the Central Coast. And in 2011, the competition was expanded nationally, with regional competitions held in each capital city and several other regional areas. Due to the increasing demand for places in the competition, we have decided to facilitate the online competition this year. As always, cash prizes and the prestigious Neville Bonner Memorial Prize shield are at stake. Further, each national […]

Read More
Find Your Local Competition

UPDATE! NOW ACCEPTING STUDENTS FOR THE 2023 COMPETITION The Neville Bonner Memorial Prize will be held from the comfort of your computer screen. You have until August 31 2023, to submit your school's entry. Register by phoning (02) 9251 2500, place your entry on YouTube as 'Unlisted' and then submit the link to [email protected]. The best entry from each state will be allowed to participate in our national final, which will be held from NSW Parliament House on October 10, via live streaming, in front of a learned, three-judge panel.   Australian Capital Territory Location Status Online Accepting entries New South Wales Location Status Online Accepting entries Northern Territory Location Status Online Proposed for 2013 Competition Queensland Location Status Online Accepting entries South Australia Location Status Online Accepting entries Tasmania Location Status Online Accepting entries Victoria Location Status Online Accepting entries Western Australia Location Status Online Accepting entries  

Read More
Church and State Show

Church and State Show Nothing is more important to the health of democracy than religious liberty. Hosted by Dave Pellowe & featuring special guests each week, The Church & State Show speaks to important cultural & political issues with a Biblical Christian perspective. Watch ‘The Church and State Show’ live and on-demand at ADH TV Fridays at 6pm AEST.      

Read More
Aussie Crown TV

Aussie Crown TV  

Read More
Crowned Republic

A Crowned Republic is a form of government that features a monarch who serves as a symbolic, ceremonial leader with limited authority over matters related to the executive branch and constitutional issues. This type of system is exemplified by countries like Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom, which are officially classified as constitutional monarchies. Additionally, the term can be applied to historical republics where the head of state held the title of "doge," such as those found in Venice, Genoa, and the Republic of San Marino. In these cases, the monarch's role was largely symbolic, with actual governance being carried out by elected officials or other government bodies. Overall, a crowned republic is a unique blend of monarchical and republican features in which the monarch's role is largely symbolic but still serves an important ceremonial function. See all so:  Australia: A Crowned Republic Crowned Republic: Introduction Crowned Republics […]

Read More
Useful Links.

Useful Links. ACM Branches Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (Toowoomba Branch) Getting it Together - From Colonies to Federation. Using historical sources such as newspaper extracts, cartoons, speeches and biographies, Getting it Together contains a series of activities for students to explore in the classroom. The national story brings each of the colonial stories together. https://getting-it-together.moadoph.gov.au/index.html OTHER WEBSITES: The Australian Nationhood Foundation (ANF) has been set up to provide information on the Australian Constitution and our system of governance. The sorts of things that we will be providing information on used to form a part of the school’s curriculum but for decades have no longer done so. For instance, how did our Constitution come into being? How is it that the six states continue to have a measure of independence with their own governments? And so on. Advance Australia: South Australia and Federation (State Library of South Australia) Australia’s Centenary of […]

Read More
Sovereign Accession

Sovereign Accession Accession describes the event of a new Sovereign taking the throne upon the death of the previous King or Queen. A new Sovereign succeeds to the throne as soon as his or her predecessor dies and is proclaimed as soon as possible at an Accession Council in St James's Palace. Formed of certain Privy Counsellors, Great Officers of State, the Lord Mayor and High Sheriffs of the City of London, Realm High Commissioners, some senior civil servants and certain others invited to attend. The Council is held (without the Sovereign) to formally announce the death of the Monarch and proclaim the succession of the new Sovereign, and to make certain consequential Orders of the Council mainly relating to the Proclamation. Following the proclamation, the Sovereign reads a declaration and takes the oath to preserve the Church of Scotland. The oath known as the accession declaration - an oath to […]

Read More
Monarchy Australia TV

Monarchy Australia TV    

Read More
King Charles III Accession

Proclamation of Accession of Charles III Charles III acceded to the throne of the United Kingdom and the thrones of the other Commonwealth realms upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II, on the afternoon of 8 September 2022. Royal succession in the realms occurs immediately upon the death of the reigning monarch. The formal proclamation in Britain occurred on 10 September 2022, at 10:00 BST, the same day on which the Accession Council gathered at St James's Palace in London.[1][2] The other realms, including most Canadian provinces and all Australian states, issued their own proclamations at times relative to their time zones, following meetings of the relevant privy or executive councils. While the line of succession is identical in all the Commonwealth realms, the royal title as proclaimed is not the same in all of them. Australia The proclamation in Australia took place in front of the Parliament House, […]

Read More
Save the Nation with Prof. David Flint

Save the Nation with Prof. David Flint      

Read More
Independence

Emergence Of Nationhood And Constitutional Conventions An understanding of the gradual development of the role of the crown, including the governor-general and the queen, requires such developments to be viewed in the context of the development of Australia as an independent nation. The developments involved changes in convention and, less often, statutes. By convention, we mean those usages or customs that are not to be found in the statute books but nevertheless are binding. In jurisdictions governed by a written constitution, there is a greater reluctance to acknowledge the role played by convention than there is where no such document exists, as in the United Kingdom. THE AUSTRALIAN CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM At the moment, our principal concern is directed to the conventions governing the relations between the governments of what were formerly referred to as dominions, now realms, and that of the United Kingdom and those governing the role of the […]

Read More
What is the Magna Carta?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta This article is about the English charter of 1215. For other uses, see Magna Carta (disambiguation). Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "Great Charter of Freedoms"), commonly called Magna Carta or sometimes Magna Charta ("Great Charter"), is a royal charter of rights agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215. First drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal Stephen Langton, to make peace between the unpopular king and a group of rebel barons, it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown, to be implemented through a council of 25 barons. Neither side stood behind their commitments, and the charter was annulled by Pope Innocent III, leading to the First Barons' War. After John's death, the regency government of his young son, Henry III, reissued […]

Read More
The Coronation

  The Royal Coronation links us to our past and our future. God save the King The Coronation of the King and the Queen Consort signifies the unerring obligation of their Majesties to the Commonwealth, dedicating their lives to serve the nation, declared His Majesty’s Australian Deputy Prime Minister, the Hon. Richard Marles. As if he were reading from an ACM-prepared script, he continued, ‘The bestowal of the Crown and the investiture of regal power exemplifies the pledge of their Majesties to a life of total dedication, duty and sacrifice.’ So, is talk of another republic referendum in the second term now passé? With this volte-face, Australians would not be surprised were the Executive Council to revoke the gratuitous insult to the late queen and the present king in the appointment of a parliamentary secretary as assistant minister for ‘the’ republic. The fact is this coronation, the ninth since the […]

Read More
Auxiliary

Auxiliary

Read More
The Sixth Pillar: Federation

The Sixth Pillar: Federation This is an edited version of a speech Professor Flint delivered to the Order of Australia Association. The themes here are developed in Give Us Back Our Country, How to Make the Politicians Accountable … on Every Day, of Every Month, of Every Year, by David Flint and Jai Martinkovits (Connor Court). In addressing you as “ladies and gentlemen”, it appears I am in breach of the instructions given to schoolchildren under the Safe Schools program. This decrees that phrases such as “ladies and gentlemen” and “boys and girls” should be avoided. That is what is being taught or proposed to be taught to our children. Now, let us consider what is no longer being taught to our children—our heritage. In 2006, a report about the teaching of history in Australian schools found that three-quarters of school students surveyed did not know why we celebrated Australia […]

Read More
The Head of State Debate Resolved...

The Head of State Debate Resolved... The principal argument advanced in the current campaign for a change to a republic is that the Head of State should be Australian; constitutional monarchists reply that we already have an Australian Head of State in the Governor-General. A hitherto overlooked High Court decision provides the key to resolving this dispute. This campaign is the fourth significant attempt to create an Australian republic. The first was to establish a white racist republic in the nineteenth century, free of the immigration policy of the British Empire. This faded away with the movement to the Federation, with the Commonwealth of Australia being endowed with an express power to establish a national immigration policy. The second and longest campaign was to create a communist state similar to the East European Peoples' Republics established after the Second World War. Its proponents never made the slightest impact in Australia […]

Read More
The Future of Our Federation: in safe hands?

The Future of Our Federation: in safe hands? "Never before have a group of self-governing, practically independent communities, without external pressure or foreign complications of any kind, deliberately chosen of their own free will to put aside their provincial jealousies and come together as one people, from a simple intellectual and sentimental conviction of the folly of disunion and the advantages of nationhood... the Australian Commonwealth, the fifth great Federation of the world, came into voluntary being through a deep conviction of national unity..." Founding Fathers Sir John Quick and Sir Robert Garren. "We need a new vision splendid," argued Australian Democrat Senator Andrew Murray recently. He said that our political and social contract is under serious strain, and not just because the Commonwealth has the money and the states want to spend it. He believes that some of this strain comes from our "creaking constitution and institutions" and the […]

Read More
Ten Principles of Freedom

Ten Principles of Freedom NATIONAL OBSERVER Australia's independent current affairs online journal No. 83 (June - August 2010). Professor David Flint AM  To be free and to enjoy that freedom, man must live in an ordered society. We cannot live in a state of anarchy or a state of nature where, as Hobbes famously put it, life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”.[1] An ordered liberal society allows mankind to lead a full life. This was recognised eloquently by the Founding Fathers of the United States when, believing that their rights as Englishmen were being denied, they declared: “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”[2] For longer than most people, Australians and New Zealanders have lived in a liberal society […]

Read More
Insight

Insight A significant development for ACM's civics education programme was reached by expanding the schools-based speaking competition to almost every state in Australia. Each student ensured their speech was extraordinarily well-researched and presented. The students informed, entertained and delighted live audiences but also described their knowledge about our system of Government and Constitutional arrangements before the competition as almost non-existent. The students felt this speaking competition was definitely worthwhile. A summary of last year’s event can be seen below:   Many participants commented on how useful the resources http://www.crownedrepublic.com.au and http://norepublic.com.au were in preparing for their speech and their newfound understanding of the Australian Constitution. All information contained in the above websites is layered out neatly. A wealth of high-quality content awaits for you to divulge.    

Read More
They Did Not Come Alone

They Did Not Come Alone By: Professor David Flint AM The First Fleet was that extraordinary venture when, under the command of Captain, later Admiral Arthur Phillip, eleven ships sailed from Portsmouth on May 13, 1787, with about 1487 people to establish the first European colony in Australia. They did not come alone. Captain Phillip did not only bring people and provisions - he brought institutions which are with us today and which have made this nation. Those institutions - and the concepts and ideas behind them - are not the property of the Anglo-Saxons of Australia, to the extent that there are still people whose lineage over the last two hundred and twenty-three years can be described as pure Anglo-Saxon. Just as in the USA, these are the institutions, concepts and ideas which belong to all Australians, whenever they or their ancestors came to this land, wherever they came […]

Read More
Alan Jones TV

Alan Jones TV      

Read More
ACM National Conferences

ACM National Conferences      

Read More
Future Developments

This Page is Under Construction.

Read More
ADH TV

ADH TV      

Read More
Spectator Australia TV

Spectator Australia TV      

Read More
ACR NEWS PLUS TV

ACR NEW PLUS TV  - CHANNELS Australian Crowned Republic  NEWS TV PLUS The Moving Pictures  (VIDEO Channels) Australian Governer-General TV (COMING SOON) Monarchy Australia TV Monarchy Australia is managed by Australians for Constitutional Monarchy. ACM. is the nation’s oldest and largest organisation dedicated to the defence of our constitutional system of government. Founded and incorporated in 1993, ACM has been audited every year and provided the engine room for the landslide victory in the 1999 referendum. ACM, alone of organisations, monarchist or republican, has held a national conference each year and has consistently attached to the fundamental principles in the debate. Interested persons can join ACM at www.norepublic.com.au Save the Nation with Prof. David Flint Hosted by Professor David Flint as he urges Australians to take back their country with intelligent conversations on the big issues. Watch ‘Save the Nation’ live and on-demand at ADH TV, Tuesdays & Thursdays at […]

Read More

Crowned Republic

A Crowned Republic is a form of government that features a monarch who serves as a symbolic, ceremonial leader with limited authority over matters related to the executive branch and constitutional issues. This type of system is exemplified by countries like Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom, which are officially classified as constitutional monarchies. Additionally, the term can be applied to historical republics where the head of state held the title of "doge," such as those found in Venice, Genoa, and the Republic of San Marino. In these cases, the monarch's role was largely symbolic, with actual governance being carried out by elected officials or other government bodies. Overall, a crowned republic is a unique blend of monarchical and republican features in which the monarch's role is largely symbolic but still serves an important ceremonial function.
Support Us!
pointer-up linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram